[pubmed] Ophthalmologic manifestations in myasthenia gravis: presentation and prognosis

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[pubmed] Ophthalmologic manifestations in myasthenia gravis: presentation and prognosis

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Acta Neurol Belg. 2021 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s13760-020-01556-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

We investigated the ophthalmologic manifestations and factors that influence outcomes in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). We retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of neuro-ophthalmologic findings and clinical and outcome measures of 100 consecutive patients (53 males, 47 females), aged 55.7 ± 17.5 (range 15-85) years with an established diagnosis of MG. Forty-eight patients had purely ocular symptoms at the onset of disease (OMG) and 52 patients presented with generalized symptoms (GMG). Overall, 21 patients presented with extraocular muscle (EOM) weakness. Bilateral EOM weakness was seen in 12 patients, and unilateral EOM weakness was seen in nine patients. Diplopia responded partially to immunosuppressive treatments in 60% of patients with ophthalmoparesis. Twenty-five (52.1%) patients with ocular-onset MG converted to secondary GMG at a mean time of 14.5 months. Patients who developed secondary GMG were younger and had an earlier age of disease onset when compared with patients with pure OMG (p < 0.05). Patients with secondary GMG presented more frequently with ptosis and diplopia (72% vs. 28%) compared with patients with pure ocular MG who presented more frequently with isolated ptosis (66.7% vs. 33.3%) (p = 0.02). Remission and minimal manifestation status were achieved in 50 (79.3%) of all patients with a clinical follow-up ≥ 3 years. Poor outcome was associated with the presence of thymoma (p < 0.05). Myasthenic ophthalmoparesis is bilateral and heterogeneous and partly responds to treatment with immunotherapy. Younger patients with ptosis and diplopia at disease onset had an increased risk of secondary GMG. The presence of thymoma increases the risk for poor prognosis.

PMID:33439450 | DOI:10.1007/s13760-020-01556-3


Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3343945 ... 7&v=2.14.2
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