[Pubmed] Myasthenia Gravis in the Setting of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: Practical Considerations and Opinion-B

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[Pubmed] Myasthenia Gravis in the Setting of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: Practical Considerations and Opinion-B

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Cureus. 2022 Oct 24;14(10):e30638. doi: 10.7759/cureus.30638. eCollection 2022 Oct.

ABSTRACT

Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is increasing in patients with oncologic disease. Three classes of checkpoint inhibitors exist: anti-PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), anti-CTLA4 (ipilimumab), and anti-PDL1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). ICI therapy has been used in multiple malignancies including renal cell cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and melanoma. These therapies have led to improved oncologic treatment and outcomes in patients but can lead to immune-related or inflammatory adverse effects. Neuromuscular system side effects, particularly at the neuromuscular junction, have been observed, including myasthenia gravis (MG). This narrative review serves to summarize key available information regarding myasthenia gravis in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor use including the molecular targets of checkpoint inhibitors, the clinical manifestations of MG in patients with checkpoint inhibitor therapy, and potential treatment options. Studies have shown that the use of checkpoint inhibitor therapy can trigger MG, and that patients with ICI-related MG can have more severe disease. Recognition and understanding of the range of neurologic complications, including neuromuscular disorders, which can be seen with ICI therapy is a critical step toward developing better treatment algorithms and improved clinical outcomes. Future investigations which include deep mechanistic studies to further our understanding of the immunopathologic triggers and predictive markers of ICI-related MG will be important to address the current knowledge gaps.

PMID:36439604 | PMC:PMC9683636 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.30638


Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3643960 ... 4&v=2.17.8
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